Introduction: – It is permanent government international organization which hits political, economics, and military organization aiming to maintain place, security and stability in the region.
-Formed in 2001
-SCO charted signed in 2002, and forced in 2003
-It is a statutory document which outlines the organization goals and principles as well as its structure and core activities.
-Official language- Russian and Chinese.
-Prior to creation of SCO in 2001, Kazakhstan, china, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan were members of shanghai five.
-S-five (1996) emerged from a series of border demarcation and demilitarization talks which the four former suit republics held with china to insure stability along the borders.
-After that it remand in 2001
-India and Pakistan became member in 2017.
Members:- Kazakhstan, china, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India, Pakistan.
Observes state:- Afghanistan, Belarus, Iran, Mongolia.
Dialogue partner:- Azerbaijan, Armenia, Cambodia, Nepal, Turkey, Sri lanka.
Objective:- 1. Strengthening the trust and neighborliness among the member states.
3.Enhancing ties in education, energy, transport, tourism environmental protection etc.
Guiding principle:- Based on shanghai spirit
Strengths of SCO
Challenges of SCO
Importance for India
That will integrate and promote connectivity and stability across borders.
India being a deficient country in terms of energy, SCO will provide it with an opportunity to meet its energy requirements through regional diplomacy.
# Construction of TAPI [Turkmenistan Afghanistan – Pakistan –India] which is stalled project, IPI [India-Pakistan-India] pipelines, can get a much push through the SCO.
Trade: – SCO provides direct access to central Asia overcoming the main hindrance in flourishing of trade between India and central Asia.
-SCO in an alternative route to central Asia.
-Economic ties-central Asian countries provides India with a market for its IT, telecommunications, banking, finance and pharmaceutical Industries, geopolitical benefit.
-Central Asia is a part of India’s Extended Neighborhood-SCO provides India an opportunity to pursue the “Connect central Asian policy.”
-Helping fulfilling the aspiration of India in extended policy with neighborhood as well as cracking the ever growing influence of china in for Asia.
-Platform to engage with traditional friend Russia as well as its rivals china and Pakistan.
Challenges of SCO membership for India